Impromptu Speaking Analysis Report

Published November 22, 2012 by Tan Lih Yen SKBP 1023

Introduction:

The purpose of communication is sending messages from a sender to a receiver. It is also an act of transferring information. However, oftentimes, in the process of speaking in whether in English or other language, a second language learner will encounter problems due to a lack of linguistic resources. Thus, in order to avoid of communication breakdowns, second language learner may use different communication strategies to enhance communicative effectiveness. This study examines the use of communication strategies between two Malaysia learners of English as a Second Language in an impromptu speaking. The specific objectives of the study were to investigate the frequency of communication strategies used during the impromptu speaking and analyse the reasons for the strategies used between both interlocutors. The strategies were analysed using a typology integrating Faerch and Kasper (1980,1983) the approach of psycholinguistic, Tarone (1980) the approach of interactional and Clennell (1995) the approach of discourse perspectives of communication strategy use.

Click here to see the full report : Impromptu Speaking Analysis Report

Analyzing Personality Domain Using Survey Monkey

Published May 23, 2012 by Tan Lih Yen SKBP 1023

On 14 of March, I have chosen ten posting from Face book to analyse five of my friends who are in the Face book because the posting are relates to their live and the decision they make. After analyzing the posting that they posted, I have predicted their personality according to the big five personality domain.

After that I have distributed my survey to the entire respondent and the friend that related to the respondent to answer my questions that designed according to the big five personality domain.

Here are the questions for my respondents:

No. Questions Domain
1. Name:
2. Like to involve in an artistic event? Openness
3. Always feel moody? Neuroticism
4. Do you like to travel to foreign lands? Openness
5. How do you feel when involving in an outgoing activities? Extroversion
6. Pay phone bill on time every month? Conscientiousness
7. Willing to start a conversation with a stranger? Extroversion
8. Like to live according to routines and schedules? Conscientiousness
9. Willing to help who is in need? Agreeableness
10. Can make good relationship with others? Agreeableness

and here are questions for my respondent’s friend:

No. Questions Domain
1. Name:
2. Does your friend likes to involve in an artistic event? Openness
3. Does your friend always feel moody? Neuroticism
4. Does your friend likes to travel to foreign lands? Openness
5. How would your friend feels when involving in an outgoing   activities? Extroversion
6. Does your friend pays phone bill on time every month? Conscientiousness
7. Will your friend starts a conversation with a stranger? Extroversion
8. Does your friend likes to live according to routines and   schedules? Conscientiousness
9. Will your friend helps who is in need? Agreeableness
10. Can your friend make good relationship with others? Agreeableness

The purpose for me to add the name for the first question is because I need to know who the respondent is after I get the feedback from my respondent and because of this purpose I just create total nine questions and only one question for the domain of neurotics. Below are my analyses from the feedback that I get from my respondents and their friends.

Respondent 1:

a) Person with the personality of openness get high scorers tends to be artistic and sophisticated in taste and appreciate diverse views, ideas, and experiences. Here is the feedback from my respondent who I predicted him falls into the personality of openness. My respondent likes to travel to foreign lands to experience new things and see new places but he doesn’t like to involve in artistic event. So, he doesn’t tend to fall into the personality of openness. The feedback that I get from my respondent does not show coherence with my prediction. Based on the feedback, he is a person seldom feel moody. This, showing that he is not a neurotic person. Although he likes to involve in an outgoing activities, he is not likely to start a conversation with a stranger. Hence, he does not get a high score in the personality of extrovert.  Besides, he dislikes living according to routines and schedules, so, he does not get high scores in the personality of conscientiousness. On the other hand, he is willing to help others and can make good relationship, so, he seems to fall into the personality of agreeableness.

b) From the view of his friend shows that my respondent likes both which are interested in travel to foreign lands and also involved in artistic event. These statements show that he falls into the personality of openness. The feedback given is just 50% coherence to my respondent feedback because actually my respondent does not like to involve in an artistic event. Besides, based on his friend’s feedback, my respondent seldom feels moody, so, he is not a neurotic person. The feedback given is the same as my respondent. His friend’s respond shows that he likes to involve in an outgoing activities but he is unlikely to start a conversation with strangers. Hence, showing that my respondent does not get high scores in the personality of extrovert. The feedback given is the same as my respondent. Besides that, his friend’s respond shows that he is a person who does not pay bill on time every month and he does not like to live according to routines and schedules. So, my respondent does not get high scores in the personality of conscientiousness. The feedback given is not same as my respondent as my respondent likes to live according to routines and schedules. On the other hand, his friend agrees that he is a person that willing to help others and can make a good relationship with others which also showing that he falls into the personality of agreeableness. The feedback given is the same as my respondent.

Summary:

Based on the research findings using Survey Monkey questionnaires to respondent 1 and to his friend, it is found that there is significant correlation between his language in Face book that my respondent falls into the personality domain of agreeableness but not the personality of openness.

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Respondent 2:

a) Secondly, people with the trait of conscientious individuals are extremely reliable and tend to be high achievers, hard workers, and planners. Here is the feedback from my respondent who I predicted him falls into the personality of conscientiousness. My respondent very sure that he will pay the phone bill on time every month shows that he is reliable. In addition, he likes to live according to routines and schedules shows that he keep lists and make plans so he maybe a good planner. The respondent’s feedback shows coherence with my assumption that he is a conscientious person. Besides that, my respondent is a person who likes to involve in an artistic event and he also likes to travel to foreign lands. Hence, he also tends to fall in the personality of openness. He is not a neurotic person because he is a person who seldom feels moody. On the other hand, he will feel relax if he is involving in an outgoing activities and he is also a person who is willing to start a conversation with strangers. This, show that he is a person who gets high scores in the personality of extroversion. Apart from that, he is a person who willing to help person who is in need and can make a good relationship with others. The feedback shows that  he get high scores in the personality of openness.

b)Moreover, from the view of his friend also gave me the same feedback as my respondent’s which agree that my respondent will pay bill on time and also agree that he likes to live according to routines and schedules. My prediction is accurate as both of the survey’s feedbacks prove that my respondent is falls into the personality of conscientiousness. Besides that, from his friend of view, she agrees that my respondent likes to involve in an artistic event and like to travel to foreign lands. Both statements show that my respondent tends to fall in the personality of openness. The feedback given is same as my respondent. Besides that, his friend also agrees that my respondent likes to involve in an outgoing activity and likely starting a conversation with strangers. Both feedbacks show that my respondent is an extrovert person who is energetic and friendly. The feedback given is same as my respondent. Based on his friend’s feedback, my respondent is a person who is willing to help person who is in need and can make a good relationship with others. Both statements show that my respondent also tend to fall into the personality of agreeableness when the situation is needed. The feedback given is also same as my respondent.

Summary:

Based on the research findings using Survey Monkey questionnaires to respondent 2 and to his friend, it is found that there is significant correlation between his language in Face book that my respondent falls into the personality domain of conscientiousness, extrovert, openness and agreeableness.

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Respondent 3:

a) Thirdly, people with the domain of extroversion normally get high scores in friendly and energetic, extroverts draw inspiration from social situations. Here is the feedback from my respondent who I predicted him falls into the personality of extroversion. My respondent feels very happy and relaxes if he can involve in an outgoing activities and he agrees that he would likely to start a conversation with strangers. Both of the statements show that my respondent tend to fall into the personality of extrovert. Based on my respondent’s feedback, showing that my he is not a neurotic person as he seldom feels moody. Besides that, my respondent is not tend to fall into the personality of conscientiousness because he does not pay bill on time every month and dislike to live according to routines and schedules. Besides, my respondent tends to fall into the personality of agreeableness when the situation is needed because he is willing to help person who is in need and can make a good relationship with others.

B) Moreover, from the view of his friend also gave me the same feedback that my respondent likes to involve in an outgoing activity and likely to start a conversation with strangers. Based on their reason I can conclude my prediction is accurate that my respondent falls into the personality of extrovert. However, from his friend’s view, my respondent likes to involve in an artistic event which actually my respondent does not like. From his friend’s view, my respondent tends to fall into the personality of openness, but, according to the analyses, my respondent not 100% falls into this personality. In addition, from his friend’s view, my respondent will pay phone bill on time and likes to live according to routines and schedules. Both of the statements shows that my respondent is tend to fall into the personality of conscientiousness. These statements answered by my respondent are not coherence with his friend. Nevertheless, his friend agrees that my respondent will help person who is in need and can make a good relationship with others. These statements show that my respondent tend to fall into the personality of agreeableness when situation is needed. The feedback given is 100% coherence with the respondent.

Summary:

Based on the research findings using Survey Monkey questionnaires to respondent 3 and to his friend, it is found that there is significant correlation between his language in Face book that my respondent falls into the personality domain of extrovert and agreeableness.

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Respondent 4:

a) People who score high in agreeableness are peace-keepers who are generally optimistic and trusting of others. Here is the feedback from my respondent who I predicted him falls into the personality of agreeableness. My respondent is willing to help who is in need and shows that he is in concern with cooperation and social harmony. Besides that he is very sure that he can make a good relationship with others shows that he is an individual value getting along with others. Apart from that, he likes to involve in an artistic event and also likes to travel to foreign lands. Both statements show that he gets high scores in the personality of openness. Besides that, he is a person who likes to involve in an outgoing activities and he is willing to a conversation with strangers. The feedback given shows that he is tend to fall into the personality of extrovert. Based on the feedback, he will pay phone bill on time every month but he is a person who dislike living according to routines and schedules. So, he gets low scores in the personality of conscientiousness. Based on my respondent’s feedback, he often feels moody and so, he tends to fall into the personality of neuroticism.

b)From the view of his friend also agreed that my second respondent is always ready to give people and helping hand and can make a good relationship with others. In other word, my prediction about my fourth respondent that fall into the personality of agreeableness is very accurate. However, from his friend of view, he disagree that my respondent likes to involve in an artistic event. This statement is not coherence with my respondent because my respondent actually likes to involve in an artistic event. Based on the feedback given by his friend shows that my respondent likes to involve in an outgoing activity and likely to start a conversation with strangers. The statements show that my respondent tends to fall into the personality of extrovert. The feedback given is same as my respondent. Based on his friend’s view, my respondent like living according to routines and schedules but actually my respondent dislike to do so. The feedback given is not the same as my respondent. Besides, from his friend of view, he is not a person that shows moody always. The feedback given is not same as my respondent because my respondent feels that he himself often feels moody.

Summary:

Based on the research findings using Survey Monkey questionnaires to respondent 4 and to his friend, it is found that there is significant correlation between his language in Face book that my respondent falls into the personality domain of agreeableness and extroversion.

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Respondent 5:

a) Finally, neurotics are people who feel moody always, tense, and easily tipped into experiencing negative emotions. Here is the feedback from my respondent who I predicted she falls into the personality of neurotics. My respondent showing that she often feels moody. The feedback given shows that he tend to fall into the personality of neuroticism. Besides that, she likes to involve in an artistic event and likes to travel to foreign lands show that she is tend to fall into the personality of openness. Although she is a person who is willing to start a conversation with strangers, she dislike involve in outgoing activities. Both of these statements shows that she get low scores in to fall into the personality of extroversion. Based on the feedback given, she will pay phone bill on time every month but she is a person who dislike living according to routines and schedules. So, she is not tending to fall into the personality of conscientiousness. Although she can make a good relationship with others but she seldom help person who is in need. So, she does not tends to fall into the personality of agreeableness.

b) In addition, from the view of her friend shows that she is a neurotic person because the feedback given shows that my respondent often shows moody. So, my prediction about my respondent 5 is accurate as she easily tipped into negative emotions that I can read through her posting in Face book. Besides, her friend disagree that my respondent likes to involve in an artistic event but actually my respondent prefers to do so. The feedback given is not coherence to the respondent’s view. Apart from that, her friend’s feedback shows that my respondent does not like to involve in an outgoing activities and unwilling to start a conversation with strangers. The feedback given is just 50% coherence with my respondent’s answer because my respondent shows that she is actually a person who is willing to start a conversation with strangers. Based on her friend of view, my respondent seldom help person who is in need but can make a good relationship with others. The feedback given is the same as my respondent’s view. Based on her friend’s feedback shows that she get low scores to fall into the personality of agreeableness, conscientiousness, extroversion.

Summary:

Based on the research findings using Survey Monkey questionnaires to respondent 5 and to his friend, it is found that there is significant correlation between his language in Face book that my respondent falls into the personality domain of neuroticism.

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Overall summary:

In my opinion, I feel that analyze a person by the words they use and emotion they show on the posting on Face book are one of the way to find out the personality of a person.

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Some references:

In contemporary psychology, the “Big Five” factors (or Five Factor Model; FFM) of personality are five domains or dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality. The Big Five framework of personality traits from Costa & McCrae, 1992 has emerged as a robust model for understanding the relationship between personality and various academic behaviours. The Big Five factors are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (common acronyms are OCEAN, NEOAC, or CANOE).

Wikipedia. (2012). Big Five Personality Traits. Wikipedea The Free Encyclopedia, 19 May 2012.<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Five_personality_traits>

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Domain Personality
1 Openness   to Experience curious,   intelligent, imaginative.
High scorers tend to be artistic and sophisticated in taste and appreciate   diverse views, ideas, and experiences.
2 Conscientiousness responsible,   organized, persevering.
Conscientious individuals are extremely reliable and tend to be high   achievers, hard workers, and planners.
3 Extroversion outgoing,   amicable, assertive.Friendly   and energetic, extroverts draw inspiration from social situations.
4 Agreeableness cooperative,   helpful, nurturing.People   who score high in agreeableness are peace-keepers who are generally   optimistic and trusting of others.
5 Neuroticism anxious,   insecure, sensitive.Neurotics   are moody, tense, and easily tipped into experiencing negative emotions.

Golbeck, J., Robles, C., & Turner, K. (2011). Prediciting Personality with Social Media. Proceedings of the 2011 annual conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 253-262). Vancouver: ACM.

Ten Frequent Words Of My Findings

Published May 5, 2012 by Tan Lih Yen SKBP 1023

TEN FREQUENT WORDS OF MY FINDINGS

No

Frequent words

Frequencies

Found in

Word Classes

1.

Black

4 hits

paragraph   5,20(2 times),31

Adjective

2.

Down

4 hits

paragraph   2,10,16,20

Verb

3.

Hundred

4 hits

paragraph   4(4 times)

Noun

4.

Struggle

2 hits

paragraph   9,23

Adjective

5.

Suffering

2 hits

paragraph   11(2 times)

Noun

6.

Hope

4 hits

paragraph   3,7,23(2 times)

Noun

7.

Believe

2 hits

paragraph   6(2 times)

Adjective

8.

Together

7 hits

paragraph 16,22,23(5 times)

Adjective

9.

Long

6 hits

paragraph   3,10(5 times)

Adjective

10.

Free

5 hits

paragraph   4,23,31(2 times), 32

Adjective

Report:

Black:

My group decided to analyze these 10 frequent words as shown on the above table and we found these frequent used words by using the software named Antconc. Firstly, as we can see on above table the frequency of the word ‘black’ is 4 hits and can be found in paragraph 5, 20 and 31. The example of sentences that I choose to analyze is: “This note was a promise that all man, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the “unalienable Rights of “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” and “…one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers”. The word ‘black’ in the sentences is an adjective that describe the dark-skinned people. In the sentences, black men can be a connotative phrases that regarding to the Negro or the African Americans. Martin Luther King demanded the government should fulfill the promises that Negro also has an equal treat.

Down:

       Secondly, we found the frequency of the word ‘down’ is 4 hits and this word can be found in paragraph 2, 10, 16 and 20. An example of sentence that I choose to analyze is: “I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for the history freedom in the history of our nation”. ‘Go down’ here is a phrasal verb that refers to something is happening and to come to be remembered in posterity. Martin Luther King was happy to join with all the Negros and the demonstration will be an event that be remembered in posterity.

Hundred:

       The frequency of the word ‘hundred’ is 4 hits and this word can be found in paragraph 4 and 9. Examples of sentences that I choose to analyze are: “But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free”. “One hundred years later, the life of the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of segregation and the chains of discrimination”. “One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity”. “One hundredyears later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land”. The word ‘hundred’ in the phrase ‘one hundred years later’ is a noun that refers to the number 100. All the sentences bringing the meaning of after very long time, the segregation between white men and black men remain the same and no justice for black men. Dr. King alludes that Negro need to fight about the discrimination of racial.

Struggle:

       The frequency of the word ‘struggle’ is 2 hits and this word can be found in paragraph 9 and 23. The examples of sentence that I choose to analyze are: “With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggletogether, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.” The word ‘struggle’ in these sentences is an adjective that refers to contend or compete for their freedom. This sentence means that Dr. King alludes the Negros to work together to contend or to compete for their freedom.

Suffering:

       The frequency of the word ‘suffering’ is 2 hits and this word can be found in paragraph 11. The examples of sentence that I choose to analyze are: “You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive”. The word ‘suffering’ in these sentences is a noun which refers to the misery result from affliction. These sentences bring the meaning of the Negros were being afflicted from either from the aspect of mentality or physically.

Hope:

       The frequency of the word ‘hope’ is 4 hits and this word can be found in paragraph 3, 7 and 23. The examples of sentences that I choose to analyze are: “Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. Here, the phrase ‘a great beacon light of hope’ is considering a metaphor to the Emancipation Proclamation and the word hope meaning a wish or desire. This sentence brings out the meaning that the Emancipation Proclamation an executive order which issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863 brings hope to the Negro. According to the information founded from Wikipedia, “the Proclamation immediately freed 50,000 slaves; with nearly all the rest (of the 3.1 million) freed as Union armies advanced”.

Believe:

       The frequency of the word ‘believe’ is 2 hits and this word can be found in paragraph 6. The examples of sentence that I choose to analyze are: “But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunityof this nation.” The word ‘believe’ here is an adjective that refers to the meaning of to accept as true or real about something. The sentence means they know that justice always there.

Together:

       The frequency of the word ‘together’ is 2 hits and this word can be found in paragraph 16, 22 and 23. An example of sentence that I choose to analyze is: “With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.” The word ‘together’ in this sentence is an adjective which means do something by joint or cooperative effort. All the sentences bring out the meaning of Martin Luther King alludes the Negro must unite together to fight for their justice!

Long:

       The frequency of the word ‘long’ is 6 hits and this word can be found in paragraph 3 and 10. The examples of sentence that I choose to analyze are: “When will you be satisfied?” We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. *We cannot be satisfied as long as the negro’s basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their self-hood and robbed of their dignity by a sign stating: “For Whites Only.”* We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until “justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream.” The word ‘long’ in the phrase as long as has repeated 5 times. The phrase ‘as long as’ here shows a conjunction that brings out the meaning of on the condition that. Hence, the sentences bring out the meaning of the Negro will never be contented if they still are treated unequally.

Free:

       The frequency of the word ‘free’ is 4 hits and this word can be found in paragraph 4, 23, 31 and 32. The examples of sentence that I choose to analyze are: “But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free” and “With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day”. The word ‘free’ here is an adjective that bring out the meaning not imprisoned or enslaved; being liberty. Hence, the meaning here means the Negro do not want them to be enslaved; they need justice for their race and posterity.

Summary:

By using Antconc, I am able to count word frequencies easily and analyses language in depth and study the text closely.

Report of Analyze Using Antconc

Published May 4, 2012 by Tan Lih Yen SKBP 1023

Introduction:

According to Presentation Magazine, stated that “speech by Martin Luther King is recognized as one of the best speeches ever given. His soaring rhetoric demanding racial justice and an integrated society became a mantra for the black community and is as familiar to subsequent generations of Americans as the US Declaration of Independence. Stylistically the speech has been described as a political treatise, a work of poetry, and a masterfully delivered and improvised sermon, bursting with biblical language and imagery. As well as rhythm and frequent repetition, alliteration is a hallmark device, used to bang home key points.” (http://www.presentationmagazine.com/analysis-of-martin-luther-kings-i-have-a-dream-speech-8059.htm)

Report:

Martin Luther’s speech reflects his brilliant use of figurative language. My group is assign to determine the frequency, the manner and the meaning of the phrase – “Now is the time” in the speech of Martin Luther King -“I have a dream”.

The frequencies of the phrase- “Now is the time is 4 hits” and this phrase are found in paragraph 6. Firstly, he said: This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. In this phrase, according to Trent Lorcher (2012) “the metaphor of the sentence showing that inaction is compared to a luxury that civil rights of workers must not purchase and gradual change is compared to tranquilizer.” (http://www.brighthubeducation.com/history-homework-help/88990-figurative-language-and-metaphors-in-i-have-a-dream-speech/)Therefore, meaning for “Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy” is the demand of Martin Luther King of the liberty and human rights especially for those being discriminated. Also, the government should fulfill the promises that Negro also has an equal treat.

Secondly, “Now is the time” also found in the sentence: “Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice.” In this sentence, according to Trent Lorcher (2012) “the metaphor of the sentence showing segregation is compared to a desolate valley and racial justice is compared to a sunlit path” (http://www.brighthubeducation.com/history-homework-help/88990-figurative-language-and-metaphors-in-i-have-a-dream-speech/) Therefore, “Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice” means that there is segregation between white men and black men. White men were rude to black men and black men were treat disrespect. According to Tonya Hillukka, “African Americans had to sit in a certain section of the bus. They had to drink from separate drinking fountains. These were dark and desolate times for African American, but King brought hope and light to their lives” (http://voices.yahoo.com/martin-luther-king-jr-day-now-time-5291537.html?cat=37)

Thirdly, “Now is the time” also found in the sentence: “Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.” In this sentence, according to Trent Lorcher (2012) “the metaphor of the sentence shows that racial injustice is compared to quicksand and brotherhood is compared to a solid rock.” Dr. King alludes that Negro need to fight about the discrimination of racial.

Fourthly, “Now is the time” also found in the sentence: “Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God’s children” alludes that we are all created by god, so, all of us should treat equally and cannot discriminate by the skin colour. Justice belongs to all of us!

Summary:

The repetition of a phrase at the beginning of sentences is a rhetorical tool known as anaphora. One example of anaphora found in Martin Luther’s speech is “now is the time…” to urge his audience to seize the moment and cannot be delayed.

Language Analyse Using Antconc

Published May 4, 2012 by Tan Lih Yen SKBP 1023

What is AntConc?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

AntConc is a UNICODE compliant freeware concordance program for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux systems developed by Laurence Anthony of Waseda University, Japan. AntConc can generate KWIC concordance lines and concordance distribution plots. It also has tools to analyze word clusters (lexical bundles), n-grams, collocates, word frequencies, and keywords.

What is concordance?

Concordance, text analysis and concordancing software, is for anyone who needs to study texts closely or analyse language in depth.

‘It really has saved us days of work – possibly weeks’ – A psychologist

“What a blast to look at documents in a light never seen before!” – A geoscientist

“The doyen of concordance programs” – Tim Nott, Personal Computer World

With Concordance, you can …

  • analyse electronic text
  • make word lists, indexes, and full      concordances
  • count word frequencies
  • list all usages of a word and see each      within its context
  • find keywords, phrases and idioms
  • gain insights into meaning
  • discover a writer’s stylistic traits
  • publish results to the web – see The Web      Concordances
  • …and much more besides.

Concordance is being used in …

  • Language teaching and learning
  • Data mining and data clean-up
  • Literary and linguistic scholarship
  • Translation and language engineering
  • Corpus linguistics
  • Forensics
  • Natural language software development
  • Lexicography
  • Content analysis in accountancy,      medicine, history, marketing, musicology, politics, geography, media      studies and many other fields.

HISTORY OF WRITING

Published April 26, 2012 by Tan Lih Yen SKBP 1023
The first writing
Writing has its origins in the strip of fertile land stretching from the Nile up into the area often referred to as the Fertile Crescent. This name was given, in the early 20th century, to the inverted U-shape of territory that stretches up the east Mediterranean coast and then curves east through northern Syria and down the Euphrates and the Tigris to the Persian Gulf.
The first known writing derives from the lower reaches of the two greatest rivers in this extended region, the Nile and the Tigris. So the two civilizations separately responsible for this totally transforming human development are the Egyptian and the Sumerian (in what is now Iraq). It has been conventional to give priority, by a short margin, to Sumer – dating the Sumerian script to about 3100 BC and the Egyptian version a century or so later.
  However, in 1988 a German archaeologist, Günter Dreyer, unearths at Abydos, on the Nile in central Egypt, small bone and ivory tablets recording in early hieroglyphic form the items delivered to a temple – mainly linen and oil.
These fragments have been carbon-dated to between 3300 and 3200 BC. Meanwhile the dating of the earliest cuneiform tablets from Sumeria has been pushed further back, also to around 3200 BC. So any claim to priority by either side is at present too speculative to carry conviction.

Click to read the page: The history of writing